Mistreatment of the Tupinambá by the settlers caused them to turn hostile and the Portuguese were forced to flee to Porto Seguro c.
The upper city formed the administrative, religious, and primary residential districts while the lower city was the commercial center, with a port and market.
During the colonial era, it was typical practice for Portuguese priests and missionaries to baptize converted African slaves and Native Americans with surnames of religious connotations. A 2015 autosomal DNA study found out the following ancestral composition in Salvador: 50.5% of African ancestry, 42.4% of European ancestry and 5.8% of Native American ancestry.
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The majority of the population has African, European and Native American roots.
The African ancestry of the city is from Angola, Benin, Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Senegal and Mozambique.
Founded by the Portuguese in 1549 as the first capital of Brazil, Salvador is one of the oldest colonial cities in the Americas.
A sharp escarpment divides its Lower Town (, Brazil's first elevator, has connected the two since 1873.
By that time, Portugal had become united with Spain and was ruled from Madrid by its kings.